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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook


It is especially in "feeling" that what we call individuality has its
roots. The individual really means the "indivisible," and in the strict
sense of the word need mean nothing more than the ego, and the unity of
consciousness of which we have already spoken. But through a change in the
meaning of the word we have come to mean much more than that by it. This
individuality forces itself most distinctly upon our attention in regard
to prominent and distinguished persons. It is the particular determination
of their psychical nature that marks them out so distinctly, and it often
rather escapes analysis and characterisation than is attained by it.
"Individuum est ineffabile." It can only be grasped intuitively and by
experience. And people of a non-reflective mood are usually more
successful in understanding it than those who reflect and analyse. It
requires "fine feeling," which knows exactly how it stands towards the
person in question, which yet can seldom give any definite account of his
characteristics. Individuality usually meets us most obviously in
exceptional men, and we are apt to contrast these with ordinary men. But
on closer examination we see that this difference is only one of degree.
"Individuality" in a less marked manner belongs to them all, and where it
exists it is a distinctly original thing, which cannot be derived from its
antecedents. No psyche is simply derivable from other psyches. What a
child receives from its parents by "heredity" are factors which, taken
together, amount to more than the mere sum of them. The synthesis of these
is at once the creation of something new and peculiar, and what has been
handed down is merely the building material. This can be felt in an
intensified and striking degree in regard to "pronounced individuality,"
but careful study will disclose the fact that there are no men quite
alike. This kind of "creative synthesis," that is, the underivability of
the individual, was the element of truth in the mythologies of
"creationism" held by the Church fathers, or in the theory of the
"pre-existence of the soul" maintained by Plato and others.

And from this point of view we must safeguard what has already been said
in regard to the culture and gradual development of our psychical inner
nature. It is true that the "soul" does not spring up ready-made in the
developing body, lying dormant in it, and only requiring to waken up
gradually. It really becomes. But the becoming is a self-realisation. It
is not true that it is put together and built up bit by bit by experience,
so that a different being might develop if the experiences were different.
It is undoubtedly dependent upon experience, impressions, and
circumstances, and without these its development would be impossible. But
these impressions act as a stimulus, developing only what is previously
inherent. They do not themselves create anything. A characteristic
predetermination restricts the development to comparatively narrow limits.
And this is identical with the individuality itself. A man may turn out
very different according to circumstances, education, influences. But he
would nevertheless recognise "himself" under any circumstances. He will
never become anything of which he had not the possibility within him from
the very beginning, any more than the rose will become a violet if it is
nurtured with a different kind of manure.

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