Sec. 1.--Witchcraft under Elizabeth (see ch. II).

A large part of the evidence for the trials of Elizabeth's reign is

derived from the pamphlets issued soon after the trials. These pamphlets

furnish a peculiar species of historical material, and it is a species

so common throughout the history of English witchcraft that it deserves

a brief examination i
passing. The pamphlets were written of course by

credulous people who easily accepted what was told them and whose own

powers of observation were untrained. To get at the facts behind their

marvellous accounts demands the greatest care and discrimination. Not

only must the miraculous be ruled out, but the prejudices of the

observer must be taken into account. Did the pamphleteer himself hear

and see what he recorded, or was his account at second hand? Did he

write soon after the events, when they were fresh in his memory? Does

his narrative seem to be that of a painstaking, careful man or

otherwise? These are questions to be answered. In many instances,

however, the pamphlets were not narrative in form, but were merely

abstracts of the court proceedings and testimony. In this case, too,

care must be taken in using them, for the testimony damaging to the

accused was likely to be accented, while the evidence on the other side,

if not suppressed, was not emphasized. In general, however, these

records of depositions are sources whose residuum of fact it is not

difficult to discover. Both in this and in the narrative material the

most valuable points may be gleaned from the incidental references and

statements. The writer has made much use of this incidental matter. The

position of the witch in her community, the real ground of the feeling

against her upon the part of her neighbors, the way in which the alarm

spread, the processes used to elicit confession--inferences of this

sort may, the writer believes, be often made with a good deal of

confidence. We have taken for granted that the pamphlets possess a

substratum of truth. This may not always be the case. The pamphleteer

was writing to sell. A fictitious narrative of witchcraft or of a witch

trial was almost as likely to sell as a true narrative. More than once

in the history of witch literature absolutely imaginary stories were

foisted upon the public. It is necessary to be constantly on guard

against this type of pamphlet. Fortunately nine-tenths of the witch

accounts are corroborated from other sources. The absence of such

corroboration does not mean that an account should be barred out, but

that it should be subjected to the methods of historical criticism, and

that it should be used cautiously even if it pass that test. Happily for

us, the plan of making a witch story to order does not seem to have

occurred to the Elizabethan pamphleteers. So far as we know, all the

pamphlets of that time rest upon actual events. We shall take them up

briefly in order.

The first was The examination and confession of certaine Wytches at

Chensforde in the Countie of Essex before the Quenes maiesties Judges,

the XXVI daye of July Anno 1566. The only original copy of this

pamphlet is in the Lambeth Palace library at London and its binding

bears the initials of R. B. [Richard Bancroft]. The versified

introduction is signed by John Phillips, who presumably was the author.

The pamphlet--a black letter one--was issued, in three parts, from the

press of William Powell at London, two of them on August 13, the third

on August 23, 1566. It has since been reprinted by H. Beigel for the

Philobiblon Society, London, 1864-1865. It gives abstracts of the

confessions and an account of the court interrogatories. There is every

reason to believe that it is in the main an accurate account of what

happened at the Chelmsford trials in 1566. Justice Southcote, Dr. Cole,

Master Foscue, and Attorney-General Gerard are all names we can

identify. Moreover, the one execution narrated is confirmed by the

pamphlet dealing with the trials at Chelmsford in 1579.

The second pamphlet, also in black letter, deals with the Abingdon cases

of 1579. It is entitled A Rehearsall both straung and true of hainous

and horrible actes committed by Elizabeth Stile, alias Rockingham,

Mother Dutten, Mother Devell, Mother Margaret. Fower notorious Witches

apprehended at Winsore in the Countie of Barks, and at Abington

arraigned, condemned and executed on the 28 daye of Februarie last anno

1579. This pamphlet finds confirmation by a reference in the privy

council records to the same event (Acts P. C., n. s., XI, 22).

Reginald Scot, in his Discoverie of Witchcraft, 17, 543, mentions

another, a book of "Richard Gallis of Windesor" "about certaine witches

of Windsore executed at Abington." This would seem to have been a

different account of the Abingdon affair, because Scot also on p. 51

speaks of some details of the Abingdon affair as to be found "in a

little pamphlet of the acts and hanging of foure witches in anno 1579."

It is perhaps the one described by Lowndes, Bibliographer's Manual of

English Literature (p. 2959) under the title The horrible Acts of

Eliz. Style, alias Rockingham, Mother Dutton, Mother Dovell, and Mother

Margaret, 4 Witches executed at Abingdon, 26 Feb. upon Richard Galis

(London, 1579) or that mentioned in the Stationers' Registers, II

(London, 1875), 352, under date of May 4, 1579, as A brief treatise

conteyninge the most strange and horrible crueltye of Elizabeth Sule

[sic] alias Bockingham [sic] and hir confederates executed at

Abingdon upon Richard Galis etc.

The second Chelmsford trials were also in 1579. The pamphlet account was

called A Detection of damnable driftes, practised by three Witches

arraigned at Chelmsforde in Essex at the last Assizes there holden,

whiche were executed in Aprill 1579. There are three references in this

pamphlet to people mentioned in the earlier Chelmsford pamphlet, so that

the two confirm each other.

The third Chelmsford trials came in 1589 and were narrated in a pamphlet

entitled The apprehension and confession of three notorious Witches

arraigned and by Justice condemnede in the Countye of Essex the 5 day of

Julye last past. Joan Cunny was convicted, largely on the evidence of

the two bastard sons of one of her "lewde" daughters. The eldest of

these boys, who was not over ten or twelve, told the court that he had

seen his grandmother cause an oak to be blown up by the roots during a

calm. The charges against Joan Upney concerned chiefly her dealings

with toads, those against Joan Prentice, who lived in an Essex

almshouse, had to do with ferrets. The three women seem to have been

brought first before justices of the peace and were then tried together

and condemned by the "judge of the circuit." This narrative has no

outside confirmation, but the internal evidence for its authenticity is

good. Three men mentioned as sheriff, justice, and landowner can all be

identified as holding those respective positions in the county.

The narrative of the St. Oses case appeared in 1582. It was called A

True and just Recorde of the Information, Examination and Confession of

all the Witches taken at St. Oses in the countie of Essex: whereof some

were executed, and other some entreated according to the determination

of Lawe.... Written orderly, as the cases were tryed by evidence, by W.

W. The pamphlet is merely a record of examinations. It is dedicated to

Justice Darcy; and from slips, where the judge in describing his action

breaks into the first person, it is evident that it was written by the

judge himself. Scot, who wrote two years later, had read this pamphlet,

and knew of the case (Discoverie, 49, 542). There are many references

to the case by later writers on witchcraft.

Eleven years later came the trials which brought out the pamphlet: The

most strange and admirable discoverie of the three Witches of Warboys,

arraigned, convicted and executed at the last assises at Huntingdon ...,

London, 1593. Its contents are reprinted by Richard Boulton, in

his Compleat History of Magick, Sorcery, and Witchcraft (London,

1715), I, 49-152. There can be no doubt as to the historical character

of this pamphlet. The Throckmortons, the Cromwells, and the Pickerings

were all well known in Huntingdonshire. An agreement is still preserved

in the archives of the Huntingdon corporation providing that the

corporation shall pay L40 to Queen's College, Cambridge, in order that a

sermon shall be preached on witchcraft at Huntingdon each Lady day. This

was continued for over two hundred years. One of the last sermons on

this endowment was preached in 1795 and attacked the belief in

witchcraft. The record of the contract is still kept in Queen's College,

Brit. Mus. MSS., 5,849, fol. 254. For mention of the affair see Darrel,

Detection of that sinnful ... discours of Samuel Harshnet, 36, 39,

110; also Harsnett, Discovery of the Fraudulent Practises, 93, 97.

Several Jacobean writers refer to the case. What seems to be another

edition is in the Bodleian: A True and Particular Observation of a

notable Piece of Witchcraft--which is the inside heading of the first

edition. The text is the same, but there are differences in the paging.

Perhaps the most curious of all Elizabethan witch pamphlets is entitled

The most wonderfull and true Storie of a certaine Witch named Alse

Gooderidge of Stapenhill, who was arraigned and convicted at Darbie, at

the Assizes there. As also a true Report of the strange Torments of

Thomas Darling, a boy of thirteen years of age, that was possessed by

the Devill, with his horrible Fittes and terrible apparitions by him

uttered at Burton upon Trent, in the Countie of Stafford, and of his

marvellous deliverance, London, 1597. There are two copies of this--the

only ones of which the writer knows--in Lambeth Palace library. They are

exactly alike, page for page, except for the last four lines of the last

page, where the wording differs. The pamphlet is clearly one written by

John Denison as an abstract of an account by Jesse Bee. Harsnett,

Discovery of the Fraudulent Practices of John Darrel, 266-269, tells

how these two books were written. Denison is quoted as to certain

insertions made in his manuscript after it left his hands, insertions

which are to be found, he says, on pages 15 and 39. The insertions

complained of by Denison are indeed to be found on the pages indicated

of The most wonderfull and true Storie of ... Alse Gooderidge, thus

establishing his authorship of the pamphlet. The account by Bee, of

which this is an abstract, I have not seen. Alse Gooderidge was put

through many examinations and finally died in prison. "She should have

been executed, but that her spirit killed her in prison." John Darrel

was one of those who sought to help the boy who had been bewitched by

Alice. Darrel, however, receives only passing mention from the author of

this pamphlet. The narrative does not agree very well in matters of

detail with the Darrel tracts, although in the main outlines it is

similar to them. It is very crudely put together, and, while it was

doubtless a sincere effort to present the truth, must not be too

implicitly depended upon.

Two pamphlets are hidden away in the back of the Triall of Maist.

Dorrel (see below, Sec. 2). The first (pp. 92-98) deals with the trial of

Doll Bartham of Shadbrook in Suffolk. She was tried by the chief justice

and hanged the 12th of July, 1599. The second (pp. 99-103) narrates the

trial of Anne Kerke before "Lorde Anderson," the 30th of December, 1599.

She also went to the gallows.

There are other pamphlets referred to in Lowndes, etc., which we have

been unable to find. One of them is The Arraignment and Execution of 3

detestable Witches, John Newell, Joane his wife, and Hellen Calles; two

executed at Barnett, and one at Braynford, 1 Dec. 1595. A second bears

the title The severall Facts of Witchcrafte approved on Margaret

Haskett of Stanmore. 1585. Black letter. Another pamphlet in the same

year deals with what is doubtless the same case. It is An Account of

Margaret Hacket, a notorious Witch, who consumed a young Man to Death,

rotted his Bowells and back bone asunder, who was executed at Tiborn, 19

Feb. 1585. London, 1585. A fourth pamphlet is The Examination and

Confession of a notorious Witch named Mother Arnold, alias Whitecote,

alias Glastonbury, at the Assise of Burntwood in July, 1574: who was

hanged for Witchcraft at Barking. 1575.

The title The case of Agnes Bridges and Rachel Pinder, created by

Hazlitt, Collections and Notes, 1867-1876, out of the mention by

Holinshed of a printed account, means but The discloysing, etc. (see

p. 351). The case--see Holinshed, Chronicles (London, 1808), IV, 325,

and Stow, Annales (London, 1631), p. 678, who put the affair in

1574--was not of witchcraft, but of pretended possession. See above, p.


To this period must belong also A true report of three Straunge

Witches, lately found at Newnham Regis, mentioned by Hazlitt

(Handbook, p. 230). I have not seen it; but the printer is given as

"J. Charlewood," and Charlewood printed between 1562 and 1593. The

Stationers' Registers, 1570-1587 (London; Shakespeare Soc., 1849), II,

32, mention also the licensing in 1577 of The Booke of

Witches--whatever that may have been.

Among pamphlets dealing with affairs nearly related to witchcraft may be

mentioned the following:

A short treatise declaringe the detestable wickednesse of magicall

sciences, as Necromancie, Coniuration of Spirites, Curiouse Astrologie

and such lyke.... Made by Francis Coxe. [London, 1561.] Black letter.

Coxe had been pardoned by the Queen.

The Examination of John Walsh, before Master Thomas Williams,

Commissary to the Reverend father in God, William, bishop of Excester,

upon certayne Interrogatories touchyng Wytch-crafte and Sorcerye, in the

presence of divers gentlemen and others, the XX of August, 1566. 1566.

Black letter. John Ashton (The Devil in Britain and America, London,

1896, p. 202) has called this the "earliest English printed book on

witchcraft pure and simple"; but it did not deal with witches and it was

preceded by the first Chelmsford pamphlet.

The discloysing of a late counterfeyted possession by the devyl in two

maydens within the Citie of London. [1574.] Black letter. The case is

that of Agnes Bridges and Rachel Pinder, mentioned above (pp. 59, 351).

The Wonderfull Worke of God shewed upon a Chylde, whose name is William

Withers, being in the Towne of Walsam ... Suffolk, who, being Eleven

Yeeres of age, laye in a Traunce the Space of Tenne Days ... and hath

continued the Space of Three Weeks, London, 1581. Written by John

Phillips. This pamphlet is mentioned by Sidney Lee in his article on

John Phillips in the Dict. Nat. Biog.

A Most Wicked worke of a Wretched Witch (the like whereof none can

record these manie yeares in England) wrought on the Person of one

Richard Burt, servant to Maister Edling of Woodhall in the Parrish of

Pinner in the Countie of Myddlesex, a myle beyond Harrow. Latelie

committed in March last, An. 1592 and newly recognized acording to the

truth. By G. B. maister of Artes. [London, 1593.] See Hazlitt,

Collections and Notes, 1867-1877. The pamphlet may be found in the

library of Lambeth Palace. The story is a curious one; no action seems

to have been taken.

A defensative against the poyson of supposed prophecies, not hitherto

confuted by the penne of any man; which being eyther uppon the warrant

and authority of old paynted bookes, expositions of dreames, oracles,

revelations, invocations of damned spirits ... have been causes of great

disorder in the commonwealth and chiefly among the simple and unlearned

people. Henry Howard, afterwards Earl of Northampton, was the author of

this "defensative." It appeared about 1581-1583, and was revised and

reissued in 1621.

Three Elizabethan ballads on witches are noted by Hazlitt,

Bibliographical Collections and Notes, 2d series (London, 1882): A

warnynge to wytches, published in 1585, The scratchinge of the

wytches, published in 1579, and A lamentable songe of Three Wytches of

Warbos, and executed at Huntingdon, published in 1593. Already in

1562-3 "a boke intituled A poosye in forme of a visyon, agaynste wytche

Crafte, and Sosyrye," written "in myter" by John Hall, had been

published (Stationers' Registers, 1557-1570, p. 78).

Some notion of the first step in the Elizabethan procedure against a

witch may be gathered from the specimens of "indictments" given in the

old formula book of William West, Simboleography (pt. ii, first

printed in 1594). Three specimens are given; two are of indictments "For

killing a man by witchcraft upon the statute of Anno 5. of the Queene,"

the third is "For bewitching a Horse, whereby he wasted and became

worse." As the documents in such bodies of models are usually genuine

papers with only a suppression of the names, it is probable that the

dates assigned to the indictments noted--the 34th and 35th years of

Elizabeth--are the true ones, and that the initials given, "S. B. de C.

in comit. H. vidua," "Marg' L. de A. in com' E. Spinster," and "Sara B.

de C. in comitatu Eb. vidua," are those of the actual culprits and of

their residences. Yorkshire is clearly one of the counties meant. It

was, moreover, West's own county.

Sec. 2.--The Exorcists (see ch. IV).

The account of Elizabethan exorcism which we have given is necessarily

one-sided. It deals only with the Puritan movement--if Darrel's work may

be so called--and does not treat the Catholic exorcists. We have omitted

the performances of Father Weston and his coadjutors because they had

little or no relation to the subject of witchcraft. Those who wish to

follow up this subject can find a readable discussion of it by T. G. Law

in the Nineteenth Century for March, 1894, "Devil Hunting in

Elizabethan England."

It is a rather curious fact that the Puritan exorcist has never, except

for a few pages by S. R. Maitland, in his Puritan Thaumaturgy (London,

1842), been made a study. Without doubt he, his supporters, and his

enemies were able between them to make a noise in their own time. To be

convinced of that one need only read the early seventeenth-century

dramatists. It may possibly be that Darrel was not the mere impostor his

enemies pictured him. Despite his trickery it may be that he had really

a certain hypnotic control over William Somers and perhaps over

Katherine Wright.

Whatever else Darrel may have been, he was a ready pamphleteer. His

career may easily be traced in the various brochures put forth, most of

them from his own pen. Fortunately we have the other side presented by

Samuel Harsnett, and by two obscure clergymen, John Deacon and John

Walker. The following is a tentative list of the printed pamphlets

dealing with the subject:

A Breife Narration of the possession, dispossession, and repossession

of William Sommers: and of some proceedings against Mr. John Dorrel

preacher, with aunsweres to such objections.... Together with certaine

depositions taken at Nottingham ..., 1598. Black letter. This was

written either by Darrel or at his instigation.

An Apologie, or defence of the possession of William Sommers, a yong

man of the towne of Nottingham.... By John Darrell, Minister of Christ

Jesus.... [1599?] Black letter. This work is undated, but, to judge

from the preface, it was probably written soon after both Darrel and

More were imprisoned. It is quite clear too that it was written before

Harsnett's Discovery of the Fraudulent Practices of John Darrel, for

Darrel says that he hears that the Bishop of London is writing a book

against him.

The Triall of Maist. Dorrel, or A Collection of Defences against

Allegations.... 1599. This seems written by Darrel himself; but the

Huth catalogue (V, 1643) ascribes it to James Bamford.

A brief Apologie proving the possession of William Sommers. Written by

John Dorrel, a faithful Minister of the Gospell, but published without

his knowledge.... 1599.

A Discovery of the Fraudulent Practises of John Darrel, Bacheler of

Artes ..., London, 1599. The "Epistle to the Reader" is signed "S. H.,"

i. e., Samuel Harsnett, then chaplain to the Bishop of London. The

book is an exposure, in 324 pages, of Darrel's various impostures, and

is based mainly on the depositions given in his trial at Lambeth.

A True Narration of the strange and grevous Vexation by the Devil of

seven persons in Lancashire ..., 1600. Written by Darrel. Reprinted in

1641 with the title A True Relation of the grievous handling of William

Somers of Nottingham. It is again reprinted in the Somers Tracts,

III, and is the best known of the pamphlets.

A True Discourse concerning the certaine possession and dispossession

of 7 persons in one familie in Lancashire, which also may serve as part

of an Answere to a fayned and false Discoverie.... By George More,

Minister and Preacher of the Worde of God ..., 1600. More was Darrel's

associate in the Cleworth performances and suffered imprisonment with


A Detection of that sinnful, shamful, lying, and ridiculous discours of

Samuel Harshnet. 1600. This is Darrel's most abusive work. He takes up

Harsnett's points one by one and attempts to answer them.

Dialogicall Discourses of Spirits and Divels by John Deacon [and] John

Walker, Preachers, London, 1601.

A Summarie Answere to al the Material Points in any of Master Darel his

bookes, More especiallie to that one Booke of his, intituled, the

Doctrine of the Possession and Dispossession of Demoniaks out of the

word of God. By John Deacon [and] John Walker, Preachers, London, 1601.

The "one Booke" now answered is a part of Darrel's A True Narration.

The Discourses are dedicated to Sir Edmund Anderson and other men

eminent in the government and offer in excuse that "the late bred

broyles ... doe mightilie over-runne the whole Realme."

A Survey of Certaine Dialogical Discourses, written by John Deacon and

John Walker ... By John Darrell, minister of the gospel ..., 1602.

The Replie of John Darrell, to the Answer of John Deacon, and John

Walker concerning the doctrine of the Possession and Dispossession of

Demoniakes ..., 1602.

Harsnett's second work must not be omitted from our account. In his

famous Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures, 1603 and 1605, he

shows to even better advantage than in the earlier work his remarkable

talents as an exposer and gives freer play to his wicked humor.

A True and Breife Report of Mary Glover's Vexation, and of her

deliverance by the meanes of fastinge and prayer.... By John Swan,

student in Divinitie ..., 1603.

This narrates another exorcism in which a number of clergymen

participated. Swan, the author, in his dedication to the king, takes up

the cudgels vigorously against Harsnett. Elizabeth Jackson was accused

of having bewitched her, and was indicted. Justice Anderson tried the

case and showed himself a confirmed believer in witchcraft. But the king

was of another mind and sent, to examine the girl, a physician, Dr.

Edward Jorden, who detected her imposture and explained it in his

pamphlet, A briefe discourse of a disease called the Suffocation of the

Mother, Written uppon occasion which hath beene of late taken thereby,

to suspect possession of an evill spirit.... (London, 1603). He was

opposed by the author of a book still unprinted, "Mary Glover's late

woefull case ... by Stephen Bradwell.... 1603" (Brit. Mus., Sloane,

831). But see also below, appendix C, under 1602-1603.

One other pamphlet dealing with this same episode must be mentioned.

Hutchinson, Historical Essay on Witchcraft, and George Sinclar,

Satan's Invisible World Discovered (Edinburgh, 1685), had seen an

account by the Rev. Lewis Hughes (in his Certaine Grievances) of the

case of Mother Jackson, who was accused of bewitching Mary Glover.

Although Hughes's tale was not here published until 1641-2, the events

with which it deals must all have taken place in 1602 or 1603. Sir John

Crook is mentioned as recorder of London and Sir Edmund Anderson as

chief justice. "R. B.," in The Kingdom of Darkness (London, 1688),

gives the story in detail, although misled, like Hutchinson, into

assigning it to 1642.

It remains to mention certain exorcist pamphlets of which we possess

only the titles:

A history of the case of Catherine Wright. No date; written presumably

by Darrel and given by him to Mrs. Foljambe, afterwards Lady Bowes. See

C. H. and T. Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigienses (Cambridge, 1858-1861),

II, 381.

Darrel says that there was a book printed about "Margaret Harrison of

Burnham-Ulpe in Norfolk and her vexation by Sathan." See Detection of

that sinnfull ... discours of Samuel Harshnet, 36, and Survey of

Certaine Dialogical Discourses, 54.

The strange Newes out of Sommersetshire, Anno 1584, tearmed, a

dreadfull discourse of the dispossessing of one Margaret Cooper at

Ditchet, from a devill in the likenes of a headlesse beare. Referred to

by Harsnett, Discovery of the Fraudulent Practises of John Darrel, 17.

A ballad seems to have been written about the Somers case. Extracts from

it are given by Harsnett, ibid., 34, 120.

Sec. 3.--James I and Witchcraft and Notable Jacobean Cases (see chs. V,


The Most Cruell and Bloody Murther committed by an Innkeepers Wife

called Annis Dell, and her Sonne George Dell, Foure Yeares since....

With the severall Witch-crafts and most damnable practices of one Iohane

Harrison and her Daughter, upon several persons men and women at

Royston, who were all executed at Hartford the 4 of August last past

1606. So far as the writer knows, there is no contemporary reference to

confirm the executions mentioned in this pamphlet. The story itself is a

rather curious one with a certain literary flavor. This, however, need

not weigh against it. It seems possible rather than probable that the

narrative is a fabrication.

The severall notorious and lewd Cosenages of Iohn West and Alice West,

falsely called the King and Queene of Fayries ... convicted ... 1613,

London, 1613. This might pass in catalogues as a witch pamphlet. It is

an account of two clever swindlers and of their punishment.

The Witches of Northamptonshire.

Agnes Browne } Arthur Bill }

Joane Vaughan} Hellen Jenkenson} Witches.

Mary Barber }

Who were all executed at Northampton the 22. of July last. 1612.

Concerning this same affair there is an account in MS., "A briefe

abstract of the arraignment of nine witches at Northampton, July 21,

1621" (Brit. Mus., Sloane, 972). This narrative has, in common with the

printed narrative, the story of Mistress Belcher's and Master Avery's

sufferings from witchcraft. It mentions also Agnes Brown and Joan Brown

(or Vaughan) who, according to the other account, were hanged. All the

other names are different. But it is nevertheless not hard to reconcile

the two accounts. The "briefe abstract" deals with the testimony taken

before the justices of the peace on two charges; the Witches of

Northamptonshire with the final outcome at the assizes. Three of those

finally hanged were not concerned in the first accusations and were

brought in from outlying districts. On the other hand, most of those who

were first accused by Belcher and Avery seem not to have been indicted.

The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches in the countie of Lancaster. With

the Arraignement and Triall of Nineteene notorious Witches, at the

Assizes and generall Gaole deliverie, holden at the Castle of Lancaster,

upon Munday, the seventeenth of August last, 1612. Before Sir James

Altham, and Sir Edward Bromley.... Together with the Arraignement and

Triall of Jennet Preston, at the Assizes holden at the Castle of Yorke,

the seven and twentieth day of Julie last past.... Published and set

forth by commandement of his Majesties Justices of Assize in the North

Parts. By Thomas Potts, Esq. London, 1613. Reprinted by the Chetham

Soc, J. Crossley, ed., 1845. Thomas Potts has given us in this book the

fullest of all English witch accounts. No other narrative offers such an

opportunity to examine the character of evidence as well as the court

procedure. Potts was very superstitious, but his account is in good


Witches Apprehended, Examined and Executed, for notable villanies by

them committed both by Land and Water. With a strange and most true

trial how to know whether a woman be a Witch or not. London, 1613.


A Booke of the Wytches Lately condemned and executed at Bedford,

1612-1613. I have seen no copy of this pamphlet, the title of which is

given by Edward Arber, Transcript of the Registers of the Company of

Stationers of London, 1554-1640 (London, 1875-1894), III, 234b.... The

story is without doubt the same as that told in the preceding pamphlet.

We have no absolutely contemporary reference to this case. Edward

Fairfax, who wrote in 1622, had heard of the case--probably, however,

from the pamphlet itself. But we can be quite certain that the narrative

was based on an actual trial and conviction. Some of the incidental

details given are such as no fabricator would insert.

In the MS., "How to discover a witch," Brit. Mus., Add. MSS., 36,674, f.

148, there is a reference to a detail of Mother Sutton's ordeal not

given in the pamphlet I have used.

A Treatise of Witchcraft.... With a true Narration of the Witchcrafts

which Mary Smith, wife of Henry Smith, Glover, did practise ... and

lastly, of her death and execution ... By Alexander Roberts, B. D. and

Preacher of Gods Word at Kings-Linne in Norffolke. London, 1616. The

case of Mary Smith is taken up at p. 45. This account was dedicated to

the "Maior" and aldermen, etc., of "Kings Linne" and was no doubt

semi-official. It is reprinted in Howell, State Trials, II.

The Wonderful Discoverie of the Witchcrafts of Margaret and Phillip

Flower, daughters of Joan Flower neere Bever Castle: executed at

Lincolne, March 11, 1618. Who were specially arraigned and condemned

before Sir Henry Hobart and Sir Edward Bromley, Judges of Assize, for

confessing themselves actors in the destruction of Henry, Lord Rosse,

with their damnable practises against others the Children of the Right

Honourable Francis Earle of Rutland. Together with the severall

Examinations and Confessions of Anne Baker, Joan Willimot, and Ellen

Greene, Witches in Leicestershire, London, 1619. For confirmation of

the Rutlandshire witchcraft see Cal. St. P., Dom., 1619-1623, 129;

Hist. MSS. Comm. Reports, Rutland, IV, 514. See also Gentleman's

Magazine, LXXIV, pt. ii, 909: "On the monument of Francis, sixth earl

of Rutland, in Bottesford church, Leicestershire, it is recorded that by

his second lady he had 'two Sons, both which died in their infancy by

wicked practices and sorcery.'"

Another pamphlet seems to have been issued about the affair: Strange

and wonderfull Witchcrafts, discovering the damnable Practises of seven

Witches against the Lives of certain noble Personages and others of this

Kingdom; with an approved Triall how to find out either Witch or any

Apprentise to Witchcraft, 1621. Another edition in 1635; see Lowndes.

The Wonderfull discoverie of Elizabeth Sawyer ... late of Edmonton, her

conviction, condemnation and Death.... Written by Henry Goodcole,

Minister of the word of God, and her continuall Visiter in the Gaole of

Newgate.... 1621. The Reverend Mr. Goodcole wrote a plain,

unimaginative story, the main facts of which we cannot doubt. They are

supported moreover by Dekker and Ford's play, The Witch of Edmonton,

which appeared within a year. Goodcole refers to the "ballets" written

about this case.

The Boy of Bilson: or A True Discovery of the Late Notorious Impostures

of Certaine Romish Priests in their pretended Exorcisme, or expulsion of

the Divell out of a young Boy, named William Perry.... London, 1622.

Preface signed by Ryc. Baddeley. This is an account of a famous

imposture. It is really a pamphlet against the Catholic exorcists. On

pp. 45-54 is given a reprint of the Catholic account of the affair; on

pp. 55-75 the exposure of the imposture is related. We can confirm this

account by Arthur Wilson, Life and Reign of James I, 107-111, and by

John Webster, Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft, 274.

A Discourse of Witchcraft As it was acted in the Family of Mr. Edward

Fairfax of Fuystone in the County of York, in the year 1621. Edited by

R. Monckton Milnes (the later Lord Houghton) for vol. V of Miscellanies

of the Philobiblon Soc. (London, 1858-1859, 299 pages). The editor says

the original MS. is still in existence. Edward Fairfax was a natural

brother of Sir Thomas Fairfax of Denton. He translated into English

verse Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, and accomplished other poetic

feats. His account of his children's bewitchment and of their trances is

very detailed. The book was again published at Harrogate in 1882, under

the title of Daemonologia: a Discourse on Witchcraft, with an

introduction and notes by William Grainge.

Sec. 4.--Matthew Hopkins (see ch. VIII).

A Most certain, strange and true Discovery of a Witch, Being overtaken

by some of the Parliament Forces, as she was standing on a small

Planck-board and sayling on it over the River of Newbury, Together with

the strange and true manner of her death. 1643. The tale told here is a

curious one. The soldiers saw a woman crossing the river on a plank,

decided that she was a witch, and resolved to shoot her. "She caught

their bullets in her hands and chew'd them." When the "veines that

crosse the temples of the head" were scratched so as to bleed, she lost

her power and was killed by a pistol shot just below the ear. It is not

improbable that this distorted tale was based on an actual happening in

the war. See Mercurius Civicus, September 21-28, 1643.

A Confirmation and Discovery of Witch-craft ... together with the

Confessions of many of those executed since May 1645.... By John Stearne

... London, 1648.

The Examination, Confession, Triall, and Execution of Joane Williford,

Joan Cariden and Jane Hott: who were executed at Feversham, in Kent ...

all attested under the hand of Robert Greenstreet, Maior of Feversham.

London, 1645. This pamphlet has no outside evidence to confirm its

statements, but it has every appearance of being a true record of


A true and exact Relation of the severall Informations, Examinations,

and Confessions of the late Witches arraigned and executed in the County

of Essex. Who were arraigned and condemned at the late Sessions, holden

at Chelmesford before the Right Honorable Robert, Earle of Warwicke, and

severall of his Majesties Justices of Peace, the 29 of July 1645....

London, 1645. Reprinted London, 1837; also embodied in Howell, State

Trials. This is a very careful statement of the court examinations,

drawn up by "H. F." In names and details it has points of coincidence

with the True Relation about the Bury affair; see next paragraph

below. It is supported, too, by Arthur Wilson's account of the affair;

see Francis Peck, Desiderata Curiosa (ed. of London, 1779), II, 476.

A True Relation of the Araignment of eighteene Witches at St.

Edmundsbury, 27th August 1645.... As also a List of the names of those

that were executed. London, 1645. There is abundance of corroborative

evidence for the details given in this pamphlet. It fits in with the

account of the Essex witches; its details are amplified by Stearne,

Confirmation of Witchcraft, Clarke, Lives of sundry Eminent Persons,

John Walker, Suffering of the Clergy ... in the Grand Rebellion

(London, 1714), and others. The narrative was written in the interim

between the first and second trials at Bury.

Strange and fearfull newes from Plaisto in the parish of Westham neere

Bow foure miles from London, London, 1645. Unimportant.

The Lawes against Witches and Conjuration, and Some brief Notes and

Observations for the Discovery of Witches. Being very Usefull for these

Times wherein the Devil reignes and prevailes.... Also The Confession of

Mother Lakeland, who was arraigned and condemned for a Witch at Ipswich

in Suffolke.... By authority. London, 1645. The writer of this pamphlet

acknowledges his indebtedness to Potts, Discoverie of Witches in the

countie of Lancaster (1613), and to Bernard, Guide to Grand Jurymen

(1627). These books had been used by Stearne and doubtless by Hopkins.

This pamphlet expresses Hopkins's ideas, it is written in Hopkins's

style--so far as we know it--and it may have been the work of the

witchfinder himself. That might explain, too, the "by authority" of the


Signes and Wonders from Heaven.... Likewise a new discovery of Witches

in Stepney Parish. And how 20. Witches more were executed in Suffolk

this last Assise. Also how the Divell came to Soffarn to a Farmers house

in the habit of a Gentlewoman on horse backe. London, [1645]. Mentions

the Chelmsford, Suffolk, and Norfolk trials.

The Witches of Huntingdon, their Examinations and Confessions ...,

London, 1646. This work is dedicated to the justices of the peace for

the county of Huntingdon; the dedication is signed by John Davenport.

Three of the witches whose accusations are here presented are mentioned

by Stearne (Confirmation of Witchcraft, 11, 13, 20-21, 42).

The Discovery of Witches: in answer to severall Queries, lately

Delivered to the Judges of Assize for the County of Norfolk. And now

published by Matthew Hopkins, Witchfinder. For the Benefit of the Whole

Kingdome.... London, 1647. Hopkins's and Stearne's accounts fit into

each other and are the two best sources for ch. VIII.

The [D]Ivell in Kent, or His strange Delusions at Sandwitch, London,

1647. Has nothing to do with witches; shows the spirit of the times.

A strange and true Relation of a Young Woman possest with the Devill.

By name Joyce Dovey dwelling at Bewdley neer Worcester ... as it was

certified in a Letter from Mr. James Dalton unto Mr. Tho. Groome,

Ironmonger over against Sepulchres Church in London.... Also a Letter

from Cambridge, wherein is related the late conference between the Devil

(in the shape of a Mr. of Arts) and one Ashbourner, a Scholler of S.

Johns Colledge ... who was afterwards carried away by him and never

heard of since onely his Gown found in the River, London, 1647. In the

first narrative a woman after hearing a sermon fell into fits. The

second narrative was probably based upon a combination of facts and


The Full Tryals, Examination and Condemnation of Four Notorious

Witches, At the Assizes held in Worcester on Tuseday the 4th of March

... As also Their Confessions and last Dying Speeches at the place of

Execution, with other Amazing Particulars ..., London, printed by "I.

W.," no date. Another edition of this pamphlet (in the Bodleian) bears

the date 1700 and was printed for "J. M." in Fleet street. This is a

most interesting example of a made-to-order witch pamphlet. The preface

makes one suspect its character: "the following narrative coming to my

hand." The accused were Rebecca West, Margaret Landis, Susan Cook, and

Rose Hallybread. Now, all these women were tried at Chelmsford in 1645,

and their examinations and confessions printed in A true and exact

Relation. The wording has been changed a little, several things have

been added, but the facts are similar; see A true and exact

Relation,10, 11, 13-15, 27. When the author of the Worcester pamphlet

came to narrate the execution he wandered away from his text and

invented some new particulars. The women were "burnt at the stak." They

made a "yelling and howling." Two of them were very "stubborn and

refractory." Cf. below, Sec. 10.

The Devill seen at St. Albans, Being a true Relation How the Devill was

seen there in a Cellar, in the likenesse of a Ram; and how a Butcher

came and cut his throat, and sold some of it, and dressed the rest for

himselfe, inviting many to supper ..., 1648. A clever lampoon.

Sec. 5.--Commonwealth and Protectorate (see ch. IX).

The Divels Delusions or A faithfull relation of John Palmer and

Elizabeth Knott two notorious Witches lately condemned at the Sessions

of Oyer and Terminer in St. Albans ..., 1649. The narrative purports to

be taken from a letter sent from St. Alban's. It deals with the

practices of two good witches who were finally discovered to be black

witches. The tale has no outside confirmation.

Wonderfull News from the North, Or a True Relation of the Sad and

Grievous Torments Inflicted upon the Bodies of three Children of Mr.

George Muschamp, late of the County of Northumberland, by Witchcraft,

... As also the prosecution of the sayd Witches, as by Oaths, and their

own Confessions will appear and by the Indictment found by the Jury

against one of them, at the Sessions of the Peace held at Alnwick, the

24 day of April 1650, London, 1650. Preface signed: "Thine, Mary

Moore." This pamphlet bears all through the marks of a true narrative.

It is written evidently by a friend of the Mistress Muschamp who had

such difficulty in persuading the north country justices, judges, and

sheriffs to act. The names and the circumstances fit in with other known


The strange Witch at Greenwich haunting a Wench, 1650. Unimportant.

A Strange Witch at Greenwich, 1650.

The last two pamphlets are mentioned by Lowndes. The second pamphlet I

have not seen; as, however, Lowndes cites the title of the first

incorrectly, it is very possible that he has given two titles for the

same pamphlet.

The Witch of Wapping, or an Exact and Perfect Relation of the Life and

Devilish Practises of Joan Peterson, who dwelt in Spruce Island, near

Wapping; Who was condemned for practising Witchcraft, and sentenced to

be Hanged at Tyburn, on Munday the 11th of April 1652, London, 1652.

A Declaration in Answer to several lying Pamphlets concerning the Witch

of Wapping, ... shewing the Bloudy Plot and wicked Conspiracy of one

Abraham Vandenhemde, Thomas Crompton, Thomas Collet, and others,

London, 1652. This pamphlet is described above, pp. 214-215.

The Tryall and Examinations of Mrs. Joan Peterson before the Honourable

Bench at the Sessions house in the Old Bayley yesterday. [1652]. This

states the case against Mistress Joan in the title, but (unless the

British Museum copy is imperfect) gives no details.

Doctor Lamb's Darling, or Strange and terrible News from Salisbury;

Being A true, exact, and perfect Relation of the great and wonderful

Contract and Engagement made between the Devil, and Mistris Anne

Bodenham; with the manner how she could transform herself into the shape

of a Mastive Dog, a black Lyon, a white Bear, a Woolf, a Bull, and a

Cat.... The Tryal, Examinations, and Confession ... before the Lord

Chief Baron Wild.... By James [Edmond?] Bower, Cleric, London, 1653.

This is the first account of the affair and is a rather crude one.

Doctor Lamb Revived, or, Witchcraft condemn'd in Anne Bodenham ... who

was Arraigned and Executed the Lent Assizes last at Salisbury, before

the Right Honourable the Lord Chief Baron Wild, Judge of the Assize....

By Edmond Bower, an eye and ear Witness of her Examination and

Confession, London, 1653. Bower's second and more detailed account. It

is dedicated to the judge by the writer, who had a large part in the

affair and frequently interviewed the witch. He does not present a

record of examinations, but gives a detailed narrative of the entire

affair. He throws out hints about certain phases of the case and rouses

curiosity without satisfying it. His story of Anne Bodenham is, however,

clear and interesting. The celebrated Aubrey refers to the case in his

Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme, 261. His account, which tallies

well with that of Bower, he seems to have derived from Anthony Ettrick

"of the Middle Temple," who was a "curious observer of the whole


A Prodigious and Tragicall History of the Arraignment, Tryall,

Confession, and Condemnation of six Witches at Maidstone, in Kent, at

the Assizes there held in July, Fryday 30, this present year, 1652.

Before the Right Honourable, Peter Warburton.... Collected from the

Observations of E. G. Gent, a learned person, present at their

Conviction and Condemnation, and digested by H. F. Gent., London, 1652.

It is a pity that the digesting was not omitted. The account, however,

is trustworthy. Mention is made of this trial by Elias Ashmole in his

Diary (London, 1717) and by The Faithful Scout, July 30-August 7,


The most true and wonderfull Narration of two women bewitched in

Yorkshire: Who camming to the Assizes at York to give in Evidence

against the Witch after a most horrible noise to the terror and

amazement of all the beholders, did vomit forth before the Judges, Pins,

wool.... Also a most true Relation of a young Maid ... who ... did ...

vomit forth wadds of straw, with pins a crosse in them, iron Nails,

Needles, ... as it is attested under the hand of that most famour

Phisitian Doctor Henry Heers, ... 1658. In the Bodleian. The writer of

this pamphlet had little information to give and seems to have got it at

second or third hand.

A more Exact Relation of the most lamentable and horrid Contract which

Lydia Rogers, living in Pump-Ally in Wapping, made with the Divel....

Together with the great pains and prayers of many eminent Divines, ...

1658. In the Bodleian. This is a "Relation of a woman who heretofore

professing Religion in the purity thereof fel afterwards to be a

sectary, and then to be acquainted with Astrologers, and afterwards with

the Divel himself." A poor woman "naturally inclin'd to melancholy"

believed she had made a contract with the Devil. "Many Ministers are

dayly with her."

The Snare of the Devill Discovered: Or, A True and perfect Relation of

the sad and deplorable Condition of Lydia the Wife of John Rogers House

Carpenter, living in Greenbank in Pumpe alley in Wappin.... Also her

Examination by Mr. Johnson the Minister of Wappin, and her Confession.

As also in what a sad Condition she continues.... London, 1658. Another

tract against the Baptists. In spite of Lydia Rogers's supposed contract

with the Devil, she does not seem to have been brought into court.

Strange and Terrible Newes from Cambridge, being A true Relation of the

Quakers bewitching of Mary Philips ... into the shape of a Bay Mare,

riding her from Dinton towards the University. With the manner how she

became visible again ... in her own Likeness and Shape, with her sides

all rent and torn, as if they had been spur-galled, ... and the Names of

the Quakers brought to tryal on Friday last at the Assises held at

Cambridge ..., London, 1659. This is mentioned by John Ashton in the

bibliographical appendix to his The Devil in Britain and America.

The Just Devil of Woodstock, or a true narrative of the severall

apparitions, the frights and punishments inflicted upon the Rumpish

commissioners sent thither to survey the manors and houses belonging to

His Majesty. 1660. Wood, Athenae Oxonienses (ed. of 1817), III, 398,

ascribes this to Thomas Widdowes. It was on the affair described in this

pamphlet that Walter Scott based his novel Woodstock. The story given

in the pamphlet may be found in Sinclar's Satan's Invisible World

Discovered. The writer has not seen the original pamphlet.

Sec. 6.--Charles II and James II (see ch. XI).

The Power of Witchcraft, Being a most strange but true Relation of the

most miraculous and wonderful deliverance of one Mr. William Harrison of

Cambden in the County of Gloucester, Steward to the Lady Nowel ...,

London, 1662.

A True and Perfect Account of the Examination, Confession, Tryal,

Condemnation and Execution of Joan Perry and her two Sons ... for the

supposed murder of William Harrison, Gent ..., London, 1676. These are

really not witchcraft pamphlets. Mr. Harrison disappears, three people

are charged with his murder and hanged. Mr. Harrison comes back from

Turkey in two years and tells a story of his disappearance which leads

to the supposition that he was transported thither by witchcraft.

A Tryal of Witches at the assizes held at Bury St. Edmonds for the

County of Suffolk; on the tenth day of March, 1664, London, 1682;

another edition, 1716. The writer of this tract writes in introducing

it: "This Tryal of Witches hath lain a long time in a private

Gentleman's Hands in the Country, it being given to him by the Person

that took it in the Court for his own satisfaction." This is the much

quoted case before Sir Matthew Hale. The pamphlet presents one of the

most detailed accounts of the court procedure in a witch case.

The Lord's Arm Stretched Out in an Answer of Prayer or a True Relation

of the wonderful Deliverance of James Barrow, the Son of John Barrow of

Olaves Southwark, London, 1664. This seems to be a Baptist pamphlet.

The wonder of Suffolke, being a true relation of one that reports he

made a league with the Devil for three years, to do mischief, and now

breaks open houses, robs people daily, ... and can neither be shot nor

taken, but leaps over walls fifteen feet high, runs five or six miles in

a quarter of an hour, and sometimes vanishes in the midst of multitudes

that go to take him. Faithfully written in a letter from a solemn

person, dated not long since, to a friend in Ship-yard, near Temple-bar,

and ready to be attested by hundreds ..., London, 1677. This is

mentioned in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1829, pt. ii, 584. I have not

seen a copy of the pamphlet.

Daimonomageia: a small Treatise of Sicknesses and Diseases from

Witchcraft and Supernatural Causes.... Being useful to others besides

Physicians, in that it confutes Atheistical, Sadducistical, and

Sceptical Principles and Imaginations ..., London, 1665. Though its

title-page bears no name, the author was undoubtedly that "William

Drage, D. P. [Doctor of Physic] at Hitchin," in Hertfordshire, to whose

larger treatise on medicine (first printed in 1664 as A Physical

Nosonomy, then in 1666 as The Practice of Physick, and again in 1668

as Physical Experiments) it seems to be a usual appendage. It is so,

at least, in the Cornell copy of the first edition and in the Harvard

copy of the third, and is so described by the Dict. Nat. Biog. and by

the British Museum catalogue.

Hartford-shire Wonder. Or, Strange News from Ware, Being an Exact and

true Relation of one Jane Stretton ... who hath been visited in a

strange kind of manner by extraordinary and unusual fits ..., London,

1669. The title gives the clue to this story. The narrator makes it

clear that a certain woman was suspected of the bewitchment.

A Magicall Vision, Or a Perfect Discovery of the Fallacies of

Witchcraft, As it was lately represented in a pleasant sweet Dream to a

Holysweet Sister, a faithful and pretious Assertor of the Family of the

Stand-Hups, for preservation of the Saints from being tainted with the

heresies of the Congregation of the Doe-Littles, London, 1673. I have

not seen this. It is mentioned by Hazlitt, Bibliographical

Collections, fourth series, s. v. Witchcraft.

A Full and True Relation of The Tryal, Condemnation, and Execution of

Ann Foster ... at the place of Execution at Northampton. With the Manner

how she by her Malice and Witchcraft set all the Barns and Corn on Fire

... and bewitched a whole Flock of Sheep ..., London, 1674. This

narrative has no confirmation from other sources, yet its details are so

susceptible of natural explanation that they warrant a presumption of

its truth.

Strange News from Arpington near Bexby in Kent: Being a True Narrative

of a yong Maid who was Possest with several Devils ..., London, 1679.

Strange and Wonderful News from Yowell in Surry; Giving a True and Just

Account of One Elisabeth Burgess, Who was most strangely Bewitched and

Tortured at a sad rate, London, 1681.

An Account of the Tryal and Examination of Joan Buts, for being a

Common Witch and Inchantress, before the Right Honourable Sir Francis

Pemberton, Lord Chief Justice, at the Assizes ... 1682. Single leaf.

The four brochures next to be described deal with the same affair and

substantially agree.

The Tryal, Condemnation, and Execution of Three Witches, viz.

Temperance Floyd, Mary Floyd, and Susanna Edwards. Who were Arraigned at

Exeter on the 18th of August, 1682.... London, 1682. Confirmed by the

records of the gaol deliveries examined by Mr. Inderwick (Side-Lights

on the Stuarts, p. 192).

A True and Impartial Relation of the Informations against Three

Witches, viz. Temperance Lloyd, Mary Trembles, and Susanna Edwards, who

were Indicted, Arraigned, and Convicted at the Assizes holden ... at ...

Exon, Aug. 14, 1682. With their several Confessions ... as also Their

... Behaviour, at the ... Execution on the Twenty fifth of the said

Month, London, 1682. This, the fullest account (40 pp.), gives

correctly the names of these three women, whom I still believe the last

put to death for witchcraft in England.

Witchcraft discovered and punished. Or the Tryals and Condemnation of

three Notorious Witches, who were Tryed the last Assizes, holden at the

Castle of Exeter ... where they received sentence of Death, for

bewitching severall Persons, destroying Ships at Sea, and Cattel by

Land. To the Tune of Doctor Faustus; or Fortune my Foe. In the

Roxburghe Collection at the British Museum. Broadside. A ballad of 17

stanzas (4 lines each) giving the story of the affair.

The Life and Conversation of Temperance Floyd, Mary Lloyd and Susanna

Edwards ...; Lately Condemned at Exeter Assizes; together with a full

Account of their first Agreement with the Devil: With the manner how

they prosecuted their devilish Sorceries ..., London, 1687.

A Full and True Account of the Proceedings at the Sessions of Oyer and

Terminer ... which began at the Sessions House in the Old Bayley on

Thursday, June 1st, and Ended on Fryday, June 2nd, 1682. Wherein is

Contained the Tryal of many notorious Malefactors ... but more

especially the Tryall of Jane Kent for Witchcraft. This pamphlet is a

brief summary of several cases just finished and has every evidence of

being a faithful account. It is to be found in the library of Lincoln's


Strange and Dreadful News from the Town of Deptford in the County of

Kent, Being a Full, True, and Sad Relation of one Anne Arthur. 1684/5.

One leaf, folio.

Strange newes from Shadwell, being a ... relation of the death of Alice

Fowler, who had for many years been accounted a witch. London, 1685. 4

pp. In the library of the Earl of Crawford. I have not seen it.

A True Account of a Strange and Wonderful Relation of one John Tonken,

of Pensans in Cornwall, said to be Bewitched by some Women: two of which

on Suspition are committed to Prison, London, 1686. In the Bodleian.

This narrative is confirmed by Inderwick's records.

News from Panier Alley; or a True Relation of Some Pranks the Devil

hath lately play'd with a Plaster Pot there, London, 1687. In the

Bodleian. A curious tract. No trial.

Sec. 7.--The Final Decline, Miscellaneous Pamphlets (see ch. XIII).

A faithful narrative of the ... fits which ... Thomas Spatchet ... was

under by witchcraft ..., 1693. Unimportant.

The Second Part of the Boy of Bilson, Or a True and Particular Relation

of the Imposter Susanna Fowles, wife of John Fowles of Hammersmith in

the Co. of Midd., who pretended herself to be possessed, London, 1698.

A Full and True Account Both of the Life: And also the Manner and

Method of carrying on the Delusions, Blasphemies, and Notorious Cheats

of Susan Fowls, as the same was Contrived, Plotted, Invented, and

Managed by wicked Popish Priests and other Papists.

The trial of Susannah Fowles, of Hammersmith, for blaspheming Jesus

Christ, and cursing the Lord's Prayer ..., London, 1698.

These three pamphlets tell the story of a woman who was "an impostor and

Notorious Lyar"; they have little to do with witchcraft. See above, ch.

XIII, note 23.

The Case of Witchcraft at Coggeshall, Essex, in the year 1699. Being

the Narrative of the Rev. J. Boys, Minister of the Parish. Printed from

his manuscript in the possession of the publisher (A. Russell Smith),

London, 1901.

A True and Impartial Account of the Dark and Hellish Power of

Witchcraft, Lately Exercised on the Body of the Reverend Mr. Wood,

Minister of Bodmyn. In a Letter from a Gentleman there, to his Friend in

Exon, in Confirmation thereof, Exeter, 1700.

A Full and True Account of the Apprehending and Taking of Mrs. Sarah

Moordike, Who is accused for a Witch, Being taken near Paul's Wharf ...

for haveing Bewitched one Richard Hetheway.... With her Examination

before the Right Worshipful Sir Thomas Lane, Sir Owen Buckingham, and

Dr. Hambleton in Bowe-lane. 1701. This account can be verified and

filled out from the records of the trial of Hathaway, printed in Howell,

State Trials, XIV, 639-696.

A short Account of the Trial held at Surry Assizes, in the Borough of

Southwark; on an Information against Richard Hathway ... for Riot and

Assault, London, 1702.

The Tryal of Richard Hathaway, upon an Information For being a Cheat

and Impostor, For endeavouring to take away The Life of Sarah Morduck,

For being a Witch at Surry Assizes ..., London, 1702.

A Full and True Account of the Discovering, Apprehending and taking of

a Notorious Witch, who was carried before Justice Bateman in Well-Close

on Sunday, July the 23. Together with her Examination and Commitment to

Bridewel, Clerkenwel, London, 1704. Signed at the end, "Tho. Greenwel."

Single page.

An Account of the Tryals, Examination, and Condemnation of Elinor Shaw

and Mary Phillips ..., 1705.

The Northamptonshire Witches ..., 1705.

The second of these is the completer account. They are by the same

author and are probably fabrications; see below, Sec. 10.

The Whole Trial of Mrs. Mary Hicks and her Daughter Elizabeth ...,

1716. See below, Sec. 10.

Sec. 8.--The Surey Pamphlets (see ch. XIII).

The Devil Turned Casuist, or the Cheats of Rome Laid open in the

Exorcism of a Despairing Devil at the House of Thomas Pennington in

Oriel.... By Zachary Taylor, M. A., Chaplain to the Right reverend

Father in God, Nicholas, Lord Bishop of Chester, and Rector of Wigan,

London, 1696.

The Surey Demoniack, Or an Account of Satan's Strange and Dreadful

Actings, In and about the Body of Richard Dugdale of Surey, near Whalley

in Lancashire. And How he was Dispossest by Gods blessing on the

Fastings and Prayers of divers Ministers and People, London, 1697.

Fishwick, Notebook of Jollie (Chetham Soc.), p. xxiv says this was

written by Thomas Jollie and John Carrington. The preface is signed by

"Thomas Jolly" and five other clergymen. Probably Jollie wrote the

pamphlet and Carrington revised it. See above, ch. XIII, note 10. Jollie

disclaimed the sole responsibility for it. See his Vindication, 7.

Taylor in The Surey Impostor assumes that Carrington wrote The Surey

Demoniack; see e. g. p. 21.

The Surey Imposter, being an answer to a late Fanatical Pamphlet,

entituled The Surey Demoniack. By Zachary Taylor. London, 1697.

A Vindication of the Surey Demoniack as no Imposter: Or, A Reply to a

certain Pamphlet publish'd by Mr. Zach. Taylor, called The Surey

Imposter.... By T. J., London, 1698. Written by Jollie.

Popery, Superstition, Ignorance and Knavery very unjustly by a letter

in the general pretended; but as far as was charg'd very fully proved

upon the Dissenters that were concerned in the Surey Imposture. 1698.

Written by Zachary Taylor.

The Lancashire Levite Rebuked, or a Vindication of the Dissenters from

Popery, Superstition, Ignorance, and Knavery, unjustly Charged on them

by Mr. Zachary Taylor.... London, 1698. Signed "N. N.;" see above ch.

XIII, note 17.

The Lancashire Levite Rebuked, or a Farther Vindication, 1698. This

seems to have been an answer to a "letter to Mr. N. N." which Taylor had

published. We have, however, no other mention of such a letter.

Popery, Superstition, Ignorance, and Knavery, Confess'd and fully

Proved on the Surey Dissenters, from a Second Letter of an Apostate

Friend, to Zach. Taylor. To which is added a Refutation of T. Jollie's

Vindication ..., London, 1699. Written by Zachary Taylor.

A Refutation of Mr. T. Jolly's Vindication of the Devil in Dugdale; Or,

The Surey Demoniack, London, 1699.

It is not worth while to give any critical appraisement of these

pamphlets. They were all controversial and all dealt with the case of

Richard Dugdale. Zachary Taylor had the best of it. The Puritan

clergymen who backed up Thomas Jollie in his claims seem gradually to

have withdrawn their support.

Sec. 9.--The Wenham Pamphlets (see ch. XIII).

An Account of the Tryal, Examination, and Condemnation of Jane Wenham,

on an Indictment of Witchcraft, for Bewitching of Matthew Gilston and

Anne Thorne of Walcorne, in the County of Hertford.... Before the Right

Honourable Mr. Justice Powell, and is ordered for Execution on Saturday

come Sevennight the 15th. One page.

A Full and Impartial Account of the Discovery of Sorcery and

Witchcraft, Practis'd by Jane Wenham of Walkerne in Hertfordshire, upon

the bodies of Anne Thorn, Anne Street, &c.... till she ... receiv'd

Sentence of Death for the same, March 4, 1711-12, London, 1712.

Anonymous, but confessedly written by Francis Bragge. 1st ed. in Cornell

library and Brit. Mus.; 2d ed. in Brit. Mus.; 3d ed. in Brit. Mus.

(Sloane, 3,943), and Bodleian; 4th ed. in Brit. Mus.; 5th ed. in Harvard

library: all published within the year.

Witchcraft Farther Display'd. Containing (I) An Account of the

Witchcraft practis'd by Jane Wenham of Walkerne, in Hertfordshire, since

her Condemnation, upon the bodies of Anne Thorne and Anne Street....

(II) An Answer to the most general Objections against the Being and

Power of Witches: With some Remarks upon the Case of Jane Wenham in

particular, and on Mr. Justice Powel's procedure therein.... London,

1712. Introduction signed by "F. B." [Francis Bragge], who was the


A Full Confutation of Witchcraft: More particularly of the Depositions

against Jane Wenham, Lately Condemned for a Witch; at Hertford. In which

the Modern Notions of Witches are overthrown, and the Ill Consequences

of such Doctrines are exposed by Arguments; proving that, Witchcraft is

Priestcraft.... In a Letter from a Physician in Hertfordshire, to his

Friend in London. London, 1712.

The Impossibility of Witchcraft, Plainly Proving, From Scripture and

Reason, That there never was a Witch; and that it is both Irrational and

Impious to believe there ever was. In which the Depositions against Jane

Wenham, Lately Try'd and Condemn'd for a Witch, at Hertford, are

Confuted and Expos'd, London, 1712. 1st ed. in Brit. Mus.; 2d ed.,

containing additional material, in the Bodleian. The author of this

pamphlet in his preface intimates that its substance had earlier been

published by him in the Protestant Post Boy.

The Belief of Witchcraft Vindicated: proving from Scripture, there have

been Witches; and from Reason, that there may be Such still. In answer

to a late Pamphlet, Intituled, The Impossibility of Witchcraft ..., By

G. R., A. M., London, 1712.

The Case of the Hertfordshire Witchcraft Consider'd. Being an

Examination of a Book entitl'd, A Full and Impartial Account ...,

London, 1712. Dedicated to Sir John Powell. In the Cornell copy of this

booklet a manuscript note on the title-page, in an eighteenth century

hand, ascribes it to "The Rector of Therfield in Hertfordshire, or his

Curate," while at the end of the dedication what seems the same hand has

signed the names, "Henry Stebbing or Thomas Sherlock." But Stebbing was

in 1712 still a fellow at Cambridge, and Sherlock, later Bishop of

London, was Master of the Temple and Chaplain to Queen Anne. See Dict.

Nat. Biog.

A Defense of the Proceedings against Jane Wenham, wherein the

Possibility and Reality of Witchcraft are Demonstrated from

Scripture.... In Answer to Two Pamphlets, Entituled: (I) The

Impossibility of Witchcraft, etc. (II) A Full Confutation of

Witchcraft, By Francis Bragge, A. B., ... London, 1712.

The Impossibility of Witchcraft Further Demonstrated, Both from

Scripture and Reason ... with some Cursory Remarks on two trifling

Pamphlets in Defence of the existence of Witches. By the Author of The

Impossibility of Witchcraft, 1712. In the Bodleian.

Jane Wenham. Broadside. The writer of this leaflet claims to have

transcribed his account from an account in "Judge Chancy's own hand".

Chauncy was the justice of the peace who with Bragge stood behind the


It is very hard to straighten out the authorshi