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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook

Various Forms Of Darwinism

The great majority of these express what may be called popular Darwinism
["Darwinismus vulgaris"], theoretically worthless, but practically
possessed of great powers of attraction and propagandism. It expresses in
the main a conviction, usually left unexplained, that everything "happens
naturally," that man is really descended from monkeys, and that life has
"evolved from lower stages" of itself, that dualism is wrong, and that
monism is the truth. It is exactly the standpoint of the popular
naturalism we have already described, which here mingles unsuspectingly
and without scruple Lamarckian and other principles with the Darwinian,
which is enthusiastic on the one hand over the "purely mechanical"
interpretation of nature, and on the other drags in directly psychical
motives, unconscious consciousness, impulses, spontaneous
self-differentiation of organisms, which nevertheless adheres to "monism"
and possibly even professes to share Goethe's conception of nature!

Above this stratum we come to that of the real experts, the only one which
concerns us in the least. Here too we find an ever-growing distance
between divergent views, the most manifold differences amounting sometimes
to mutual exclusion. These differences occur even with reference to the
fundamental doctrine generally adhered to, the doctrine of descent. To one
party it is a proved fact, to another a probable, scientific working
hypothesis, to a third a "rescuing plank." One party is always finding
fresh corroborations, another new difficulties. And within the same group
we find the contrasts of believers in monophyletic and believers in
polyphyletic evolution, the mechanists and the half-confessed or
thoroughgoing vitalists, the preformationists and the believers in
epigenesis. Opinions differ even more widely in regard to the role of
the "struggle for existence" in the production of species. On the one hand
we have the Darwinism of Darwin freed from inconsequent additions and
formulated as orthodox "neo-Darwinism"; on the other hand we have
heterodox Lamarckism. The "all-sufficiency" of natural selection is
proclaimed by some, its impotence by others. Indefinite variation is
opposed by orthogenesis, fluctuating variation by saltatory mutation
(Halmatogenesis in "Greek"), passive adaptation by the spontaneous
activity and self-regulation of the living organism. The struggle for
existence is variously regarded as the chief factor, or as a co-operating
factor, or as an indifferent, or even an inimical factor in the
origination of new species.

And among the representatives of these different standpoints there are
most interesting personal differences: in some, like Weismann, we find a
great loyalty to, and persistence in the position once arrived at, in
others the most surprising transitions and changes of opinion. Thus
Fleischmann, a pupil of Selenka's, after illustrating during many years of
personal research the orthodox Darwinian standpoint, finally developed
into an outspoken opponent not only of the theory of selection but of the
doctrine of descent. So also Friedmann.(6) Driesch started from the
mechanical theory of life and advanced through the connected series of his
own biological essays to vitalism. Romanes, a prominent disciple of
Darwin, ended in Christian theism, and Wallace, the discoverer of "the
struggle for existence," landed in spiritualism.

Nothing like an exhaustive view of the present state of Darwinism and its
many champions can here be attempted. But it will be necessary to get to
know what we may call its possibilities by a study of typical and leading
examples. In the course of our study many of the problems to which the
theory gives rise will reveal themselves, and their orientation will be

This task falls naturally into two subdivisions: (1) the present state of
the theory of Evolution and Descent, and how far the religious conception
of the world is or is not affected by it; (2) the truth as to the
originative and directive factors of Evolution, especially as to "natural
selection in the struggle for existence," whether they are tenable and
sufficient, and what attitude religion must take towards them. These two
problems must be kept distinct throughout, and must be discussed in order.
For the validity of what is characteristically Darwinism is in no way
decided by proving descent and evolution, although it appears so in most
popular expositions.(7)

Next: The Theory Of Descent

Previous: The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism

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