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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook

The Conservation Of Matter And Energy

1. The whole mechanical theory is based upon a law which is not strictly
biological but belongs to science in general--the law of the conservation
of matter and energy. This was first recognised by Kant as a general
rational concept in his "Critique" and in the "Grundlegung der Metaphysik
der Naturwissenschaft," and was transferred by Robert Mayer and
Helmholtz(59) to the domain of natural science. Just as no particle of
matter can come from nothing or become nothing, so no quantum of energy
can come from nothing or become nothing. It must come from somewhere and
must remain somewhere. The form of energy is continually changing, but the
sum of energy in the universe remains invariable and constant. Therefore,
it seems to follow, there can be no specific vital phenomena. The energies
concerned in the up-building, growth, and decay of the organism, and the
sum of the functions performed by it, must be the exact resultant and
equivalent of the potential energies stored in its material substance and
the co-operative energies of its environment. The particular course of
transformations they follow must have its sufficient reason in the
configuration of the parts of the organism, in its relations to the
environment, and the like. An intervention of "vitalistic" principles,
directions and so forth, would, we are told, involve a sudden obtrusion
and disappearance again of energy-effects which had no efficient cause in
the previous phenomena. From any point of view it would be a miracle, and
in particular it would be doing violence to the law of the constancy of
the sum of energy.

Apart from the inherent general "instinct"--sit venia verbo, for no more
definite word is available--which is the quiet Socius, the concealed but
powerful spring of the mechanistic convictions, as of most others, this
law of the conservation of energy is probably the really central argument,
and it meets us again more or less disguised in what follows.

Next: The Organic And The Inorganic

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