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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook

The Development Of Darwinism

In studying it we should like to follow a method somewhat different from
that usually observed in apologetic writings. "Darwinism," even in its
technical, biological form, never was quite, and is to-day not at all a
unified and consistent system. It has been modified in so many ways and
presented in such different colours, that we must either refrain
altogether from attempting to get into close quarters with it, or we must
make ourselves acquainted to some extent with the phases of the theory as
it has gradually developed up to the present day. This is the more
necessary and useful since it is precisely within the circle of technical
experts that revolts from and criticisms of the Darwinian theory have in
recent years arisen; and these are so incisive, so varied, and so
instructive, that through them we can adjust our standpoint in relation to
the theory better than in any other way. And in thus letting the
biologists speak for themselves, we are spared the fatal task of entering
into the discussion of questions belonging to a region outside our own
particular studies.

We cannot, however, give more than a short sketch. But even such a sketch
may do more towards giving us a general knowledge of the question and
showing us a way out of the difficulties it raises than any of the current
"refutations." To supplement this sketch, and facilitate a thorough
understanding of the problem, we shall give somewhat fuller references
than are usual to the relevant literature. And the same method will be
pursued in the following chapter, which deals with the mechanical theory
of life. This method throws more upon the reader, but it is probably the
most satisfactory one for the serious student.

The reactions from the Darwinism of the schools which we have just
referred to, and to which the second half of this chapter is devoted, are,
of course, of a purely scientific kind. And while we are devoting our
attention to them, we must not be unfaithful to the canon laid down in the
previous chapter, namely that with reference to the question of teleology
in the religious sense no real answer can be looked for from scientific
study, not even if it be anti-Darwinian. In this case, too, it is
impossible to read the convictions and intuitions of the religious
conception of the world out of a scientific study of nature: they precede
it. But here, too, we may find some accessory support and indirect
corroboration more or less strong and secure. This may be illustrated by a
single example. It will be shown that, on closer study, it is not
impossible to subordinate even the apparently confused tangle of
naturalistic factors of evolution which are summed up in the phrase
"struggle for existence" to interpretation from the religious point of
view. But matters will be in quite a different position if the whole
theory collapses, and instead of evolution and its paths being given over
to confusion and chance, it appears that from the very beginning and at
every point there is a predetermination of fixed and inevitable lines
along and up which it must advance. In many other connections
considerations of a like nature will reveal themselves to us in the course
of our study.

Darwinism, as popularly understood, is the theory that "men are descended
from monkeys," and in general that the higher forms of life are descended
from the lower, and it is regarded as Darwin's epoch-making work and his
chief merit--or fault according to the point of view--that he established
the Theory of Descent. This is only half correct, and it leaves out the
real point of Darwinism altogether. The Theory of Descent had its way
prepared by the evolutionist ideas and the speculative nature-philosophy
of Goethe, Schelling, Hegel and Oken; by the suggestions and glimmerings
of the nature-mysticism of the romanticists; by the results of comparative
anatomy and physiology; was already hinted at, at least as far as
derivation of species was concerned, in the works of Linne himself; was
worked out in the "zoological philosophies," by the elder Darwin, by
Lamarck, Etienne Geoffrey St. Hilaire and Buffon; was in the field long
before Charles Darwin's time; was already in active conflict with the
antagonistic theory of the "constancy of species," and had its more or
less decided adherents. Yet undoubtedly it was through and after Darwin
that the theory grew so much more powerful and gained general acceptance.

Next: Darwinism And Teleology

Previous: Darwinish In General

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