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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook

Preyer's Position

Along with Virchow, we must name another of the older generation, the
physiologist William Preyer, who combated "vitalism," "dualism," and
"mechanism" with equal vehemence, and issued a manifesto, already somewhat
solemn and official, against "vital force." And yet he must undoubtedly be
regarded as a vitalist by mechanists and vitalists alike.(79) He is more
definite than Virchow, for he does not content himself with general
statements as to the "origin" of vital force, and of the "swinging over"
of the merely mechanical energies into the domain of the vital, but holds
decidedly to the proposition omne vivum e vivo. He therefore maintains
that life has always existed in the cosmos, and entirely rejects
spontaneous generation.

The fallacy, he says, of the mechanistic claims was due to the increasing
number of physical explanations of isolated vital phenomena, and of
imitations of the chemical products of organic metabolism. A wrong
conclusion was drawn from these. "Any one who hopes to deduce from the
chemical and physical properties of the fertilised egg the necessity that
an animal, tormented by hunger and love must, after a certain time, arise
therefrom, has a pathetic resemblance to the miserable manufacturers of
homunculi." Life is one of the underivable and inexplicable fundamental
functions of universal being. From all eternity life has only been
produced from life.

As Preyer accepts the Kant-Laplace theory of the origin of our earth from
the sun, he reaches ideas which have points of contact with the
"cosmo-organic" ideas of Fechner. Life was present even when the earth was
a fiery fluid sphere, and was possibly more general and more abundant then
than it is now. And life as we know it may only be a smaller and isolated
expression of that more general life.(80)

Among the younger generation of specialists, those most often quoted as
opponents of the mechanical theory are probably Bunge, Rindfleisch, Kerner
von Marilaun, Neumeister and Wolff. A special group among them, not very
easy to classify, may be called the Tectonists. Associated with them is
Reinke's "Theory of Dominants." Driesch started from their ranks, and is a
most interesting example of consistent development from a recognition of
the impossibilities of the mechanistic position to an individually
thought-out vitalistic theory. Hertwig, too, takes a very definite
position of his own in regard to these matters. Perhaps the most original
contribution in the whole field is Albrecht's "Theory of Different Modes
of Regarding Things." We may close the list with the name of K. C.
Schneider, who has carried these modern ideas on into metaphysical
speculation. Several others might be mentioned along with and connecting
these representative names.(81)

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Previous: Virchow's Caution

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