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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook

Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution

The theory of natural selection in the struggle for existence rapidly
gained wide acceptance, but from the first it was called in question from
many sides. Bronn, who translated Darwin's works into German, was and
remained loyal to the idea of a "developmental law"--that there is within
the organism an innate tendency towards self-differentiation and progress,
thus a purely teleological principle.(34) Similarly, von Baer emphasised
the idea of an endeavour to realise an aim; von Koelliker, that of
"heterogenesis"; Naegeli, that of an impulse towards perfection--all three
thus recognising the theory of evolution, but dissenting from the view
that the struggle for existence is the impelling factor and actual guide
in the process. Very soon, in another direction, antagonism became
pronounced between the strictly Darwinian elements of the theory (the
struggle for existence and its corollaries) and the accessory Lamarckian
elements. Through these and other controversies the present state of the
question has emerged.

The main antithesis at present is the following. On the one side, the
"all-sufficiency of natural selection" is maintained, that is, progressive
evolution is regarded as coming about without direct self-exertion on the
part of the organisms themselves, simply through the fact that fortuitous
variations are continually presenting themselves, and are being selected
and established according to their utility in the struggle for existence.
On the other side--with Lamarck--the progress is regarded as due to effort
and function on the part of the organism itself. (Increased use of an
organ strengthens it; a changed use transforms it; disuse causes it to
degenerate. Thus new characters appear, old ones pass away, and in the
course of thousands of years the manifold diversity of the forms of life
has been brought about.)

Further, by those of the one side variation is regarded as occurring by
the smallest steps that could have selective value in the struggle for
existence. To the others variation seems to have taken place by leaps and
bounds, with relatively sudden transformations of the functional and
structural equilibrium on a large scale. In regard to these the role of
the struggle for existence must be merely subsidiary. This saltatory kind
of evolution-process is called "halmatogenesis," or, more neatly,
"kaleidoscopic variation," because, as the pictures in a kaleidoscope
change not gradually but by a sudden leap to an essentially new pattern,
so also do the forms of life. Associated with this is the following
contrast. One side believes in free and independent variation of any
organ, any part, any function, physical or mental, any instinct, and so
on, apart from change or persistence in the rest of the organism; the
other side believes in the close connectedness of every part with the
whole, in the strict "correlation" of all parts, in variation in one part
being always simultaneously associated with variation in many other parts,
all being comprised in the "whole," which is above and before all the
parts and determines them. And further, to one school variation seems
without plan in all directions, simply plus or minus on either side of a
mean; to the other, variation seems predetermined and in a definite
direction--an "orthogenesis," in fact, which is inherent in the organism,
and which is indifferent to utility or disadvantage, or natural selection,
or anything else, but simply follows its prescribed path in obedience to
innate law. The representatives of this last position differ again among
themselves. Some regard it as true in detail, in regard, for instance, to
the markings of a butterfly's wing, the striping of a caterpillar, the
development of spots on a lizard; while others regard it as governing the
general process of evolution as a whole. Finally, there is the most
important contrast of all. On the one side, subordination, passivity,
complete dependence on the selective or directive factors in evolution,
which alone have any power; on the other, activity, spontaneous power of
adaptation and transformation, the relative freedom of all things living,
and--the deepest answer to the question of the controlling force in
evolution--the secret of life. This last contrast goes deeper even than
the one we have already noted, that between the Darwinian and the
Lamarckian principle of explanation; and it leads ultimately from the
special Darwinian problem to quite a new one, to be solved by itself--the
problem of the nature and secret of living matter.

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Previous: Darwinism In The Strict Sense

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