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CRITICS OF DARWINISM.

Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Genius
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
Heredity
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Immortality
Individual Development
Individuality
Intuitions Of Reality
Irritability
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Mysticism
Natural Selection
Naturalism
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Parallelism
Personality
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Self-consciousness
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Underivability
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
Weismannism
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook



Eimer's Orthogenesis








Organisation is due to internal causes. Structural characters crystallise
out, as it were. "Orthogenesis," or the definitely determined tendency of
evolution to advance in a few directions, is a law for the whole of the
animate world. In active response to the stimuli and influences of the
environment the organism expresses itself in "organic growth" without any
relation to utility. Butterflies in particular, and especially their
markings and coloration, are taken as illustrations. In the Darwinian
theory of "mimicry" these played a brilliant part. The great resemblance
to leaves, to dried twigs, or to well-protected species which are secure
from enemies, was regarded as the most convincing proof of the operation
of natural selection. But Eimer shows that markings, striping, spots, the
development of pattern, and the alleged or real resemblances to leaves,
are really subject to definite laws of growth, in obedience to which they
gradually appear, developing according to their own internal laws, varying
and progressing altogether by internal necessity, and without any
reference to advantage or disadvantage, In association with this
orthogenesis, Eimer recognises halmatogenesis, correlation and
"genepistasis" (coming to a standstill at a fixed and definite stage), and
these seem to him to make the Darwinian theory utterly impossible. The
text and the illustrations of the book show how, in the sequence of
evolution (according to Eimer's laws of transformation), the groupings of
stripes, bands, and eye-spots must have appeared on the butterfly's wing,
how convex or concave curvings of the contour must have come about at
certain points, so that the form of a "leaf" and the lines of its venation
resulted, how the eye-spots must have been moulded and shunted, so that
they produced the effect of rust or other spots on withered leaves.
Particular interest attaches to the detailed arguments against the idea
that the butterfly must receive some advantage from its "mimicry." Even
the Darwinians have to admit that in a whole series of cases the advantage
is not obvious. They talk with some embarrassment of "pseudomimicry." Some
butterflies that are supposed to be protected have the protective markings
on the underside, so that these are actually hidden when the insects are
flying from pursuing birds. Many of the leaf-like butterflies are not
wood-butterflies at all, but meadow species,(47) and so Eimer's arguments
continue.

A specially energetic fellow-worker on Eimer's line is W. Haacke, a
zoologist of Jena, author of "Gestaltung und Vererbung," and "Die
Schoepfung des Menschen und seiner Ideale."(48) In the first of these works
Haacke combats, energetically and with much detail, Weismann's
"preformation theory," and defends "epigenesis," for which he endeavours
to construct graphic diagrams, his aim being to make a foundation for the
inheritance of acquired characters, definitely directed evolution,
saltatory, symmetrical, and correlated variation.

The principles of the new school are very widespread to-day, but we cannot
here follow their development in the works of individual investigators,
such as Reinke, R. Hertwig, O. Hertwig, Wiesner, Hamann, Dreyer, Wolff,
Goette, Kassowitz, v. Wettstein, Korschinsky, and others.(49)





Next: The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism

Previous: De Vries's Mutation-theory



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