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CRITICS OF DARWINISM.

Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Genius
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
Heredity
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Immortality
Individual Development
Individuality
Intuitions Of Reality
Irritability
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Mysticism
Natural Selection
Naturalism
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Parallelism
Personality
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Self-consciousness
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Underivability
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
Weismannism
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook



De Vries's Mutation-theory








The work that has probably excited most interest in this connection is De
Vries' "Die Mutationstheorie: Versuche und Beobachtungen ueber die
Entstehung von Arten im Pflanzenleben."(46) In a short preliminary paper
he had previously given some account of his leading experiments on a
species of evening primrose (OEnothera lamarckiana), and the outlines of
his theory. In the work itself he extends this, adding much concrete
material, and comparing his views in detail with other theories. Darwin,
he says, had already distinguished between variability and mutability; the
former manifesting itself in gradual and isolated changes, the latter in
saltatory changes on a larger scale. The mistake made by Wallace and by
the later Darwinians has been that they regarded this latter form ("single
variation") as unimportant and not affecting evolution, and the former as
the real method of evolutionary process. That fluctuating individual
variations do occur De Vries admits, but only within narrow limits, never
overstepping the type of the species. Here De Vries utilises the recent
statistical investigations into the phenomena of individual variation and
their laws, as formulated chiefly by Quetelet and Bateson, which were
unknown to Darwin and the earlier Darwinians. The actual transition from
"species to species" is made suddenly, by mutation, not through variation.
And the state of equilibrium thus reached is such a relatively stable one
that individual variations can only take place within its limits, but can
in no way disturb it.

De Vries marshals a series of facts which present insurmountable
difficulties to the Darwinian theory, but afford corroboration of the
Mutation theory. In particular, he brings forward, from his years of
experiment and horticultural observation, comprehensive evidence of the
mutational origin of new species from old ones by leaps, and this not in
long-past geological times, but in the course of a human life and before
our very eyes. The main importance of the book lies in the record of these
experiments and observations, rather than in the theory as such, for the
way had been paved for it by other workers.

In contrast to Darwinism, De Vries states the case for "Halmatogenesis"
(saltatory evolution) and "Heterogenesis" (the production of forms unlike
the parents), taking his examples from the plant world, but his attitude
to Darwinism is conciliatory throughout. Eimer, on the other hand, is
sharply antagonistic, especially to Weismann; he takes his proofs from the
animal kingdom, and in the second volume of his large work already
mentioned, which deals with the "orthogenesis of butterflies," he attempts
to set against the Darwinism "chance theory," a proof of "definitely
directed evolution," and therefore of the "insufficiency of natural
selection in the formation of species."





Next: Eimer's Orthogenesis

Previous: Theory Of Definite Variation



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