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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook

Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary

(7.) Thus religion confidently subjects the world to a teleological
interpretation. And to a teleological study in this sense the strictly
causal interpretations of natural science are not hostile, but
indispensable. For how do things stand? Natural science endeavours by
persistent labour to comprehend the whole of the facts occurring in our
world, up to the existence of man, as the final outcome and result of an
age-long process of evolution, attempts also to follow this process ever
higher up the ladder of strictly causal and strictly law-governed
sequences, and finally to connect it with the primary and simplest
fundamental facts of existence, beyond which it cannot go, and which must
simply be accepted as "given." If these results of this causally
interpreted evolution reveal themselves to our inward power of valuation
as full of meaning and value, indeed of the deepest and most incomparable
value, the causal mode of explanation is in no way affected, but its
results are all at once placed in a new light and reveal a peculiarity
which was previously not discoverable, yet which is their highest import.
They become a strictly united system of means. And purposefulness as a
potentiality is thus carried back to the very foundation and "beginning,"
to the fundamental conditions and primary factors of the cosmos itself.
The strict nexus of conditions and causes is thus nothing more than the
"endeavour after end and aim," the carrying through and realisation of the
eternal purpose, which was implicit potentially in the fundamental nature
of things. The absolute obedience to law, and the inexorableness of chains
of sequence are, instead of being fatal to this position, indispensable to
it. When there is a purpose in view, it is only where the system of means
is perfect, unbroken, and absolute, that the purpose can be realised, and
therefore that intention can be inferred. In the inexplicable datum of the
fundamental factors of the world's existence, in the strict nexus of
causes, in the unfailing occurrence of the results which are determined by
both these, and which reveal themselves to us as of value and purpose,
teleology and providence are directly realised. The only assumptions are,
that it is possible to judge the results according to their value, and
that both the original nature of the world and the system of its causal
sequences--that is, the world as we know it--can be conceived of in
accordance with the ideas of dependence and conditionedness. Both
assumptions are not only possible, but necessary.

In thinking out this most general consideration, we find the real and
fundamental answer to the question as to the validity and freedom of the
religious conception of the world with regard to teleology in nature. And
if it be held fast and associated with the insight into the autonomy of
the spiritual and its underivability from the natural, we are freed at
once from all the petty strife with the naturalistic doctrines of
evolution, descent, and struggle for existence. We shall nevertheless be
obliged to discuss these to some extent, because it is not a matter of
indifference whether the detailed study of natural evolution fits in more
or less easily with the conception of purpose whose validity we have
demonstrated in general. If that proves to be the case, it will be an
important factor in apologetics. The conclusion which we have already
arrived at on abstract grounds will then be corroborated and emphasised in
the concrete.

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