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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook

The Mechanics Of Development

5. The minds of the supporters of the mechanical theory had still to move
along a fifth line in order to solve the riddle of the development of the
living individual from the egg, or of the germ to its finished form, the
riddle of morphogenesis. They cannot assume the existence of "the whole"
before the part, or equip it with the idea of the thing as a spiritus
rector, playing the part of a metaphysical controlling agency. Here as
elsewhere they must demonstrate the existence of purely mechanical
principles. It is simply from the potential energies inherent in its
constituent parts that the supply of energy must flow, by means of which
the germ is able to make use of inorganic material from without, to
assimilate it and increase its own substance, and, by using it up, to
maintain and increase its power of work, to break up the carbonic acid of
the atmosphere and to gain the carbon which is so important for its vital
functions, to institute and organise the innumerable chemico-physical
processes by means of which its form is built up. Purely as a consequence
of the chemico-physical nature of the germ, of the properties of the
substances included in it on the one hand, and of the implicit structure
and configuration of its parts, down to the intrinsic specific undulatory
rhythm of its molecules, it must follow that its mass grows exactly as it
does, and not otherwise, that it behaves as it does and not otherwise,
duplicating itself by division after division, and by intricate changes
arranging and rearranging the results of division until the embryo or
larva, and finally the complete organism, is formed.

An extraordinary amount of ingenuity has been expended in this connection,
in order to avoid here, where perhaps it is most difficult of all, the use
of "teleological" principles, and to remain faithful to the orthodox,
exclusively mechanical mode of interpretation. To this category belong
Darwin's gemmules, Haeckel's plastidules, Naegeli's micellae, Weismann's
labyrinth of ids, determinants, and biophors within the germ-plasm, and
Roux's ingenious hypothesis of the struggle of parts, which is an attempt
to apply the Darwinian principle within the organism in order here also to
rebut the teleological interpretation by giving a scientific one.(66)

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