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Activity Of Consciousness
Aim And Method Of Naturalism
Autonomy Of Spirit
Consciousness Of The Ego
Constructive Criticism
Contrast Between Darwinian And Post-darwinian Views
Creative Power Of Consciousness
Criticisms Of The Mechanistic Theory Of Life
Crities Of Darwinism
Darwinish In General
Darwinism And Teleology
Darwinism In The Strict Sense
De Vries's Mutation-theory
Differences Of Opinion As To The Factors In Evolution
Eimer's Orthogenesis
Evolution And New Beginnings
Feeling Individuality Genius And Mysticism
Freedom Of Spirit
Fundamental Principles Of Naturalism
Goethe's Attitude To Naturalism
Haeckel's Evolutionist Position
How All This Affects The Religious Outlook
How The Religious And The Naturalistic Outlooks Conflict
Individual Development
Intuitions Of Reality
Is There Ageing Of The Mind?
Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism
Machnical Theories Criticism
Mind And Spirit The Human And The Animal Soul
Mystery : Dependence : Purpose
Natural Selection
Naturalistic Attacks On The Autonomy Of The Spiritual
No Parallelism
Other Instances Of Dissatisfaction With The Theory Of Descent
Pre-eminence Of Consciousness
Preyer's Position
Religion And The Theory Of Descent
Spontaneous Generation
Teleological And Scientific Interpretations Are Alike Necessary
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Space
The Antimony Of Our Conception Of Time
The Antimony Of The Conditioned And The Unconditioned
The Characteristic Features Of Darwinism
The Conservation Of Matter And Energy
The Constructive Work Of Driesch
The Contingency Of The World
The Dependence Of The Order Of Nature
The Development Of Darwinism
The Ego
The Fundamental Answer
The Law Of The Conservation Of Energy
The Mechanics Of Development
The Mystery Of Existence Remains Unexplained
The Organic And The Inorganic
The Position Of Bunge And Other Physiologists
The Problema Continui
The Real World
The Recognition Of Purpose
The Religious Interpretation Of The World
The Spontaneous Activity Of The Organism
The Supremacy Of Mind
The Theory Of Descent
The True Naturalism
The Two Kinds Of Naturalism
The Unconscious
The Unity Of Consciousness
The Views Of Albrecht And Schneider
The Views Of Botanists Illustrated
The World And God
Theory Of Definite Variation
Theory Of Life
Various Forms Of Darwinism
Virchow's Caution
Virchow's Position
Weismann's Evolutionist Position
What Is Distinctive In The Naturalistic Outlook
What Is Distinctive In The Religious Outlook

Theory Of Definite Variation

But the question now arises, whether both Darwinism and Lamarckism must
not be replaced, or at least reduced to the level of accessory theories
and factors, by another theory of evolution which was in the field before
Darwin, and which since his time has been advanced anew, especially by
Naegeli, and has now many adherents who support it in whole or in part.
This view affects the very foundations of the Darwinian doctrine. The
theory of "indefinite" variation, bringing about easy transitions and
affecting every part of the organism separately, which is the necessary
correlate of the "struggle for existence," is rejected altogether.
Evolution takes place only along a few definite lines, predetermined
through the internal organisation and the laws of growth. It is wholly
indifferent to "utility," and brings forth only what it must according to
its own inner laws, not seldom even the monstrous. According to this view,
new species arise, not in easy transition, but with a visible leap, by a
considerable and far-reaching displacement of the organic equilibrium.
What Darwin calls the correlation of parts, and in no way denies, is here
maintained in strong opposition to his doctrine of the isolated variation
of individual parts; every member or character of the organism depends
upon others, and variation of one affects many, and in some way all of the

This theory is for the most part intended by its champions to be purely
naturalistic. But every one of its points yields support to teleological
considerations, most obviously so the concrete instances of correlation.
If any one were to attempt to make a theory of evolution from a decidedly
teleological standpoint, he would probably construct one very similar to
the one we are now considering.

It is noteworthy that it has generally been the botanists who have
especially supported these views of saltatory evolution in a definite
direction and according to internal law, who have therefore tended to
react most strongly from Darwinism. We find examples in Naegeli's large and
comprehensive work, "Mechanisch-physikalische Theorie der
Abstammungslehre"; and, before him, in Wigand's "Darwinismus und die
Naturforschung Newton's und Cuvier's"; in von Koelliker's "Heterogenesis";
in von Baer's "Endeavour after an End"; in the chapter added by the
translator, Bronn, to the first German edition of the "Origin of Species,"
where he urges weighty objections against the theory of selection, and
refers to the "innate impulse to development, persistently varying in a
definite direction"; in Askenasy's oft-quoted "Beitraege zur Kritik der
Darwinschen Lehre," also referring to "variation in a definite direction,"
for instance, in flowers; in Delpino's views, and in the works of many
other older writers. But we must leave all these out of account here,
since we are concerned only with the present state of the question.

Next: De Vries's Mutation-theory

Previous: Lamarckism And Neo-lamarckism

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